Affricates

In speech production, the term affricate refers to a category of consonant sounds that comprise both a stop consonsant (e.g. /ttt/, /ddd/, /ppp/) and a fricative sound (e.g., /sss/, /zzz/, /ʃshsh/). English has two affricates – /ʧchch/ (as in church) and /ʤjj/ (as in judge). 

/ʧchch/

The consonant /ʧchch/ (handshape 8) is found in words like child, much, situation. When spoken, the sound is made up two other sounds /ttt/ and /ʃshsh/. The initial stop and placement of the tongue can lead new, hearing cuers to believe that they say the letter “t” in words like watch, catch, and botch. Insertion of handshape 5 for /ttt/ in these words would be incorrect. There is no difference in pronunciation for the final consonants in which and witch

Examples

butch, chap, cheap, ditch, fetch, etch, Etch-a-Sketch, glitch, hatch, gotcha, match, much, notch, patch, ratchet, snatch, stitch, stretch, twitch, which, witch

/ʤjj/

The consonant /ʤjj/ (handshape 7) is found in words like jump, edge, and graduate (n.). This sound is produced in speech by making the sounds /ddd/ and /ʒzhzh/. Keen students may perceive the initial stop /ddd/, which can cause them to believe they should include it in words like fudge, ridge, wedge. However, handshape 1 would not be included in any of these words. There is no difference in pronunciation between the words pigeon and pidgin

Examples

badge, barge, cage, cajole, cartridge, dodge, dodgy, edge, edgy, fledgling, fudge, gorgeous, judge, judging, large, ledge, Madge, magic, Marge, margarine, margin, nudging, purge, ridge, surge, wage, wedge.

 

 

church

  • /ʧɚˈʧ/
  • /churˈch/
  • /chûrˈch/
  • 8m8s

judge

  • /ʤʌˈʤ/
  • /juhˈj/
  • /jŭˈj/
  • 7sd7s

child

  • /ʧɑɪˈld/
  • /chieˈld/
  • /chīˈld/
  • 8s5t6s1s

much

  • /mʌˈʧ/
  • /muhˈch/
  • /mŭˈch/
  • 5sd8s

situation

  • /sɪˌʧueɪˈʃən/
  • /siˌchueayˈshən/
  • /sĭˌcho͞oāˈshən/
  • 3t8c5c5t6sd4s

watch

  • /wɑˈʧ/
  • /wahˈch/
  • /wäˈch/
  • 6sf8s

catch

  • /kæˈʧ/
  • /kaˈch/
  • /kăˈch/
  • 2t8s

botch

  • /bɑˈʧ/
  • /bahˈch/
  • /bäˈch/
  • 4sf8s

which

  • /wɪˈʧ/
  • /wiˈch/
  • /wĭˈch/
  • 6t8s

witch

  • /wɪˈʧ/
  • /wiˈch/
  • /wĭˈch/
  • 6t8s

butch

  • /bʊˈʧ/
  • /booˈch/
  • /bo͝oˈch/
  • 4t8s

chap

  • /ʧæˈp/
  • /chaˈp/
  • /chăˈp/
  • 8t1s

cheap

  • /ʧiˈp/
  • /cheeˈp/
  • /chēˈp/
  • 8m1s

ditch

  • /dɪˈʧ/
  • /diˈch/
  • /dĭˈch/
  • 1t8s

fetch

  • /fɛˈʧ/
  • /fehˈch/
  • /fěˈch/
  • 5c8s

etch

  • /ɛˈʧ/
  • /ehˈch/
  • /ěˈch/
  • 5c8s

Etch-a-Sketch

  • /ɛˈʧəskɛˌʧ/
  • /ehˈchəskehˌch/
  • /ěˈchəskěˌch/
  • 5c8sd3s2c8s

glitch

  • /glɪˈʧ/
  • /gliˈch/
  • /glĭˈch/
  • 7s6t8s

hatch

  • /hæˈʧ/
  • /haˈch/
  • /hăˈch/
  • 3t8s

gotcha

  • /gɑˈʧə/
  • /gahˈchə/
  • /gäˈchə/
  • 7sf8sd

match

  • /mæˈʧ/
  • /maˈch/
  • /măˈch/
  • 5t8s

much

  • /mʌˈʧ/
  • /muhˈch/
  • /mŭˈch/
  • 5sd8s

notch

  • /nɑˈʧ/
  • /nahˈch/
  • /näˈch/
  • 4sf8s

patch

  • /pæˈʧ/
  • /paˈch/
  • /păˈch/
  • 1t8s

ratchet

  • /ræˈʧɪt/
  • /raˈchit/
  • /răˈchĭt/
  • 3t8t5s

snatch

  • /snæˈʧ/
  • /snaˈch/
  • /snăˈch/
  • 3s4t8s

stitch

  • /stɪˈʧ/
  • /stiˈch/
  • /stĭˈch/
  • 3s5t8s

stretch

  • /strɛˈʧ/
  • /strehˈch/
  • /strěˈch/
  • 3s5s3c8s

twitch

  • /twɪˈʧ/
  • /twiˈch/
  • /twĭˈch/
  • 5s6t8s

which

  • /wɪˈʧ/
  • /wiˈch/
  • /wĭˈch/
  • 6t8s

witch

  • /wɪˈʧ/
  • /wiˈch/
  • /wĭˈch/
  • 6t8s

jump

  • /ʤʌˈmp/
  • /juhˈmp/
  • /jŭˈmp/
  • 7sd5s1s

edge

  • /ɛˈʤ/
  • /ehˈj/
  • /ěˈj/
  • 5c7s

graduate

  • /græˈʤəwət/
  • /graˈjəwət/
  • /grăˈjəwət/
  • 7s3t7sd6sd5s

fudge

  • /fʌˈʤ/
  • /fuhˈj/
  • /fŭˈj/
  • 5sd7s

ridge

  • /rɪˈʤ/
  • /riˈj/
  • /rĭˈj/
  • 3t7s

wedge

  • /wɛˈʤ/
  • /wehˈj/
  • /wěˈj/
  • 6c7s

pigeon

  • /pɪˈʤɪn/
  • /piˈjin/
  • /pĭˈjĭn/
  • 1t7t4s

pidgin

  • /pɪˈʤɪn/
  • /piˈjin/
  • /pĭˈjĭn/
  • 1t7t4s

badge

  • /bæˈʤ/
  • /baˈj/
  • /băˈj/
  • 4t7s

barge

  • /bɑˈrʤ/
  • /bahˈrj/
  • /bäˈrj/
  • 4sf3s7s

cage

  • /keɪˈʤ/
  • /kayˈj/
  • /kāˈj/
  • 2c5t7s

cajole

  • /kəʤoʊˈl/
  • /kəjohˈl/
  • /kəjōˈl/
  • 2sd7sf6s

cartridge

  • /kɑˈrtrɪʤ/
  • /kahˈrtrij/
  • /käˈrtrĭj/
  • 2sf3s5s3t7s

dodge

  • /dɑˈʤ/
  • /dahˈj/
  • /däˈj/
  • 1sf7s

dodgy

  • /dɑˈʤi/
  • /dahˈjee/
  • /däˈjē/
  • 1sf7m

edge

  • /ɛˈʤ/
  • /ehˈj/
  • /ěˈj/
  • 5c7s

edgy

  • /ɛˈʤi/
  • /ehˈjee/
  • /ěˈjē/
  • 5c7m

fledgling

  • /flɛˈʤlɪŋ/
  • /flehˈjling/
  • /flěˈjlĭng/
  • 5s6c7s6t8s

fudge

  • /fʌˈʤ/
  • /fuhˈj/
  • /fŭˈj/
  • 5sd7s

gorgeous

  • /goˈrʤɪs/
  • /gohˈrjis/
  • /gōˈrjĭs/
  • 7sf3s7t3s

judge

  • /ʤʌˈʤ/
  • /juhˈj/
  • /jŭˈj/
  • 7sd7s

judging

  • /ʤʌˈʤɪŋ/
  • /juhˈjing/
  • /jŭˈjĭng/
  • 7sd7t8s

large

  • /lɑˈrʤ/
  • /lahˈrj/
  • /läˈrj/
  • 6sf3s7s

ledge

  • /lɛˈʤ/
  • /lehˈj/
  • /lěˈj/
  • 6c7s

Madge

  • /mæˈʤ/
  • /maˈj/
  • /măˈj/
  • 5t7s

magic

  • /mæˈʤɪk/
  • /maˈjik/
  • /măˈjĭk/
  • 5t7t2s

Marge

  • /mɑˈrʤ/
  • /mahˈrj/
  • /mäˈrj/
  • 5sf3s7s

margarine

  • /mɑˈrʤrɪn/
  • /mahˈrjrin/
  • /mäˈrjrĭn/
  • 5sf3s7s3t4s

margin

  • /mɑˈrʤɪn/
  • /mahˈrjin/
  • /mäˈrjĭn/
  • 5sf3s7t4s

nudging

  • /nʌˈʤɪŋ/
  • /nuhˈjing/
  • /nŭˈjĭng/
  • 4sd7t8s

purge

  • /pɚˈʤ/
  • /purˈj/
  • /pûrˈj/
  • 1m7s

ridge

  • /rɪˈʤ/
  • /riˈj/
  • /rĭˈj/
  • 3t7s

surge

  • /sɚˈʤ/
  • /surˈj/
  • /sûrˈj/
  • 3m7s

wage

  • /weɪˈʤ/
  • /wayˈj/
  • /wāˈj/
  • 6c5t7s

wedge

  • /wɛˈʤ/
  • /wehˈj/
  • /wěˈj/
  • 6c7s