In speech production, the term affricate refers to a category of consonant sounds that comprise both a stop consonsant (e.g. /ttttttttt/, /ddddddddd/, /ppppppppp/) and a fricative sound (e.g., /sssssssss/, /zzzzzzzzz/, /ʃshshʃshshʃshsh/). English has two affricates – /ʧchchʧchchʧchch/ (as in church) and /ʤjjʤjjʤjj/ (as in judge). 


The consonant /ʧchchʧchchʧchch/ (handshape 8) is found in words like child, much, situation. When spoken, the sound is made up two other sounds /ttttttttt/ and /ʃshshʃshshʃshsh/. The initial stop and placement of the tongue can lead new, hearing cuers to believe that they say the letter "t" in words like watch, catch, and botch. Insertion of handshape 5 for /ttttttttt/ in these words would be incorrect. There is no difference in pronunciation for the final consonants in which and witch


butch, chap, cheap, ditch, fetch, etch, Etch-a-Sketch, glitch, hatch, gotcha, match, much, notch, patch, ratchet, snatch, stitch, stretch, twitch, which, witch


The consonant /ʤjjʤjjʤjj/ (handshape 7) is found in words like jump, edge, and graduate (n.). This sound is produced in speech by making the sounds /ddddddddd/ and /ʒzhzhʒzhzhʒzhzh/. Keen students may perceive the initial stop /ddddddddd/, which can cause them to believe they should include it in words like fudge, ridge, wedge. However, handshape 1 would not be included in any of these words. There is no difference in pronunciation between the words pigeon and pidgin


badge, barge, cage, cajole, cartridge, dodge, dodgy, edge, edgy, fledgling, fudge, gorgeous, judge, judging, large, ledge, Madge, magic, Marge, margarine, margin, nudging, purge, ridge, surge, wage, wedge.