When learning to cue English, beginners are sometimes influenced by spelling. This can be true for the various ways "-ed" endings are cued. A common beginner error is to cue all words that end with -ed with the /ddddddddd/ phoneme. However, some words that end with -ed actually end with the /ttttttttt/ phoneme.
So, what’s the pattern for past tense "-ed" words?
1) If the root word ends in /ttttttttt/ or /ddddddddd/, the [-ed] ending is pronounced (cued) /ɪĭiɪĭiɪĭiddddddddd/ or /əəəəəəəəəddddddddd/.
|/wwwwwwwwweɪāayeɪāayeɪāayˈˈˈˈˈˈˈˈˈtttttttttɪĭiɪĭiɪĭiddddddddd/ or /wwwwwwwwweɪāayeɪāayeɪāayˈˈˈˈˈˈˈˈˈtttttttttəəəəəəəəəddddddddd/||/nnnnnnnnnɪĭiɪĭiɪĭiˈˈˈˈˈˈˈˈˈtttttttttɪĭiɪĭiɪĭiddddddddd/ or /nnnnnnnnnɪĭiɪĭiɪĭiˈˈˈˈˈˈˈˈˈtttttttttəəəəəəəəəddddddddd/||/vvvvvvvvvoʊōohoʊōohoʊōohˈˈˈˈˈˈˈˈˈtttttttttɪĭiɪĭiɪĭiddddddddd/ or /vvvvvvvvvoʊōohoʊōohoʊōohˈˈˈˈˈˈˈˈˈtttttttttəəəəəəəəəddddddddd/|
Exceptions to this rule include rugged, naked, and wicked.
2) If the root ends with a voiceless sound (other than /t/), the ending is cued as /t/.
Exceptions to this rule include spilt, spelt, dealt, dremt.
3) If the root word ends in a voiced sound (other than /ddddddddd/), the [-ed] ending is pronounced (cued) /ddddddddd/.
|(vowels)||played, annoyed, accrued|