-ed Words

When learning to cue English, beginners are sometimes influenced by spelling. This can be true for the various ways "-ed" endings are cued. A common beginner error is to cue all words that end with -ed with the /ddddddddd/ phoneme. However, some words that end with -ed actually end with the /ttttttttt/ phoneme.

So, what’s the pattern for past tense "-ed" words?

1) If the root word ends in a voiced sound (other than /ddddddddd/), the [-ed] ending is pronounced (cued) /ddddddddd/.

Final Consonant Examples
/ʒzhzhʒzhzhʒzhzh/ camouflaged
/zzzzzzzzz/ buzzed, caused
/vvvvvvvvv/ saved, served
/ðt͟htHðt͟htHðt͟htH/ soothed
/rrrrrrrrr/ soared, barred
/bbbbbbbbb/ sobbed
/nnnnnnnnn/ planned
/mmmmmmmmm/ trimmed
/lllllllll/ billed
/ggggggggg/ bagged
/ʤjjʤjjʤjj/ urged
/ŋngngŋngngŋngng/ banged
(vowels) played, annoyed, accrued

Exceptions to this rule include spilt, spelt, dealt, dremt. 

2) If the root word ends in /ttttttttt/ or /ddddddddd/, the [-ed] ending is pronounced (cued) /ɪĭiɪĭiɪĭiddddddddd/ or /əəəəəəəəəddddddddd/.

 waited knitted voted
 /wwwwwwwwwāayāayāayˈˈˈˈˈˈˈˈˈtttttttttɪĭiɪĭiɪĭiddddddddd/ or /wwwwwwwwwāayāayāayˈˈˈˈˈˈˈˈˈtttttttttəəəəəəəəəddddddddd/ /nnnnnnnnnɪĭiɪĭiɪĭiˈˈˈˈˈˈˈˈˈtttttttttɪĭiɪĭiɪĭiddddddddd/ or /nnnnnnnnnɪĭiɪĭiɪĭiˈˈˈˈˈˈˈˈˈtttttttttəəəəəəəəəddddddddd/ /vvvvvvvvvōohōohōohˈˈˈˈˈˈˈˈˈtttttttttɪĭiɪĭiɪĭiddddddddd/ or /vvvvvvvvvōohōohōohˈˈˈˈˈˈˈˈˈtttttttttəəəəəəəəəddddddddd/
     

       

                 

3) If the root ends with a voiceless sound (other than /t/), the ending is cued as /t/.

Final Consonant Examples
/kkkkkkkkk/ worked
/ppppppppp/ sipped
/sssssssss/ missed
/ʃshshʃshshʃshsh/ washed
/θththθththθthth/ frothed